The pigment is a natural reddish-rose color, of the flower of the amaranth plant. In the food industry, Amaranth has been widely used in the manufacturing of yogurt, ice cream, sausages, candies due to its high water solubility and thermal stability. Besides the positive effect of more egg production from layers, feeding amaranth can improve yolk color. Amaranth leaf also contains high protein content which could be supplemented in broiler diets.
It is one of the carotenoids in nature with yellow, orange and reddish colors. It gives plants (carrots, sweet potatoes and apricots) reddish color. It is a provitamin A which is used in food to provide extra vitamin A for the body. Similarly, beta carotene is the major precursor of vitamin A for livestock. It also improves reproductive performance and protects against oxidative stress and stimulates the immune system in cattle. Since poultry cannot synthesize beta carotene, it has to take from outside. Besides being a source of vitamin A for poultry, beta carotene is effective in the pigmentation of skin and egg yolks. Due to its antioxidant properties, it prevents to deterioration of eggs and meat.
Xanthophyll is a yellow and brow carotenoid plant pigment which causes the color of leaves in the autumn. Color is the most important factor for consumer choice, in many countries, golden yolks are preferred due to the association with high health. Xanthophyll finds application in poultry farming, when added to feed, it gives the golden color of egg yolk and improve the skin color of broilers.
Canthaxanthin is a red carotenoid found in mushroom, green algae, bacteria, crustaceans and fish. It is used as a feed additive for poultry to create red color in skin and yolks. It also finds applications in feed to enhance the color quality of fish (sea trout and salmon meat) and crustaceans.
Astaxanthin is a by-product from crustaceans and is commonly extracted from shrimp cells. It is a pigment for crustaceans, fishes (salmon, rainbow trout, koi carp), egg yolk. It is also a strong anti-oxidant for improving immune system, reproductive performance, growth promoter... for animal, aqua, pet, and human.
Visual color is related to perceptions of consumer, resulting in the purchase decision and the reflect of product quality. Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon-yellow pigment widely used as a food coloring. In feed formulation, it can be used to make the color of feed mixture uniform and more attractive.