Aquatic probiotics are used to the intestines of aquatic animals, enhance immune system and promote growth. Aquatic probiotics used to improve water quality and stop the bacterial infections. They can improve digestibility of nutrients, increase tolerance to stress and diseases, and encourage reproduction. The most commonly commercial probiotics are from bacterial species such as Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The term “Probiotic” comes from the Greek pro and bios meaning prolife. It can be described as organisms and substances that contribute the intestinal microbial balance. The probiotic species used for swine are similar to those in agriculture. In the swine industry, probiotics have been widely used to boost the early life performance of piglets. When fed in feed, probiotics help to achieve a stable and diversified gut microbiota. They release enzymes, biological catalysts, to convert nutrients to small molecules to be absorbed by piglets.
Domestic ruminants, mainly cows, sheep, and goats have a diverse and complex microbial community which have an effect on polysaccharide fermentation in rumen. Generally, probiotics are used to improve gastrointestinal health, reduce diarrhea, bloating and protect against infectious diseases. Moreover, probiotics are to stabilize pH of the rumen, increase the production of volatile fatty acids and to stimulate lactic acid utilizing protozoa, resulting in a highly efficient rumen function. Furthermore, probiotics also help to increase milk production and can reduce incidence of neonatal diarrhea and mortality. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacillus, Saccharomyces and Enterococcus are commonly used as probiotics.